This period was marked by a slow progression of sovereignty among the Danes, a people who originated in Skaane (today the southern part of Sweden) but eventually were based in Jutland.
Last week, the Japanese parliament passed a law allowing Prince Naruhito's father, Emperor Akihito, to become the first monarch to abdicate in 200 years.
Jutland, Zealand, and Funen (Fyn) are the largest and most densely populated regions.
There is a relative homogeneity in topography, with few areas at a high elevation.
During his visit, he will meet with Frederik's mother, Queen Margrethe, as well as the Danish Prime Minister, Lars Loekke Rasmussen.
The state trip will also include a visit to the fairy tale writer, Hans Christian Andersen's museum, in Odense, central Denmark, and a dinner with Prince Frederik and Princess Mary.