An alternative route to Melbourne along the coast, the Princes Highway, is considerably slower, but mu interesting.
Inland highways include the New England Highway (route 15, to the interior from Newcastle to Brisbane); the Newell Highway (route 39, through the interior from Melbourne to west of Brisbane); and the Sturt Highway (route 20, crossing southern New South Wales to Adelaide).
When their proposed site of settlement at Botany Bay proved unsuitable, they sailed on to find what is today Sydney Harbour.
The penal colony of New South Wales was established as soon as the prisoners and marines disembarked.
Sydneysiders, as residents are called, while notoriously disinterested in self-reflection, would certainly agree with this description.
They are immensely proud of their robust and vibrant city, and all the glitzy glamour of its most recent decades, and not very interested in dwelling on its history (although that attitude is changing, too).
With a population of more than four million, the Sydney region now comprises almost a quarter of the countrys entire population.
Like the Cainozoic basin in the west and southwest, this formation is relatively flat and dry in the interior.
The development of Australia as a Western nation began on 26 January 1788, when Captain Arthur Phillip and his shipment of 736 convicts and four companies of marines landed, first at Watsons Bay and, finally, at Sydney Cove; these were the members of The First Fleet, so frequently referred to in Australian literature and popular culture.
Their trip had taken eight months from Portsmouth and had covered more than 22,000km (14,000 miles).
The Tank Stream, as the freshwater source was called, very quickly proved insufficient for the needs of the colony.
Three sandstone tanks were built almost immediately in which to preserve its supply, but by the 1810s the stream was severely depleted and polluted.