Any abnormalities that occur during the surgery are corrected by administering additional medications, fluids and, sometimes, blood transfusions.
When the surgery is complete, the anesthesia drugs are discontinued, and you gradually wake up, usually in the operating recovery room.
• Inhalation agents – these are vapors or gases used to induce or maintain anesthesia that the patient usually breathes through a tube or mask. agents include: – Barbiturates and Non-barbiturates – Side effects of barbiturates and non-barbiturates include depressed breathing, cough, hiccups, muscle twitching, and spasm of the laryngeal cords.
They work by depressing the central nervous system. – Benzodiazepines – Side effects of benzodiazepines (Valium, Versed) – drowsiness, confusion, dizziness, weakness, headache, tremors, eyes crossing, clumsiness, and trouble thinking or speaking.
Level 4 (general anesthesia) – The patient loses consciousness and can’t be aroused even with painful stimuli. The muscle function is depressed and heart function may be impaired.
General anesthesia consists of 4 stages; each stage causes changes in breathing, muscle tone, and reflexes. During surgery, the patient proceeds through the first 3 stages: Stage I – Analgesia Stage II – Excitement Stage III – Surgical anesthesia (which has 4 planes) Stage IV – Medullary depression Inhalation agents are gases or vapors that work mainly by depressing the central nervous system.
Anesthesia is the partial or complete loss of sensation, with or without loss of consciousness. However, this article is about anesthesia administered by injection or inhalation for the purpose of performing tests or surgery.
In most cases, anesthesia is started with an anesthetic delivered through an I. Once you are asleep, a tube (endotracheal tube) may be inserted in your mouth and down your windpipe to make sure you get enough oxygen and protect your lungs from blood or body fluids.
The following factors can increase your risk of complications: • Alcohol use may make you susceptible to liver damage • Allergies to food or medicine • Family or personal history of bad reactions to anesthesia • Health conditions with your heart, lungs or kidneys • Sleep apnea (you stop breathing while you’re asleep) • Smoking increases your chances of having lung and breathing problems • Medicines that keep your blood from clotting, such as aspirin and NSAIDS • Very overweight The following complications are rare and happen more often in adults over 65 or people with health conditions: • Death • Heart attack • Lung infections • Stroke • Temporary mental confusion Regional anesthesia blocks the sensation in either a nerve or a region of the body.
Regional anesthesia is sometimes called local anesthesia or nerve block.
Level 2 (moderate sedation) – consciousness is reduced, but the patient responds to verbal commands.
He can breathe on his own and heart function is maintained without help.